Facial nerve mri

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The facial nerve, also known as the cranial nerve VII, is a mixed function cranial nerve with dominant motor function, but also parasympathetic and gustatory functions. Its motor fibers control the muscles of facial expression, while its parasympathetic efferent fibers control secretory functions of the lacrimal, submandibular and sublingual glands. Its afferent fibers receive the taste sensation from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The appropriate imaging evaluation of the facial nerve depends on which segment of the facial nerve is being explored, which must be deducted from the clinical signs and symptoms of the affected nerve. Computed tomography CT is most useful for evaluation of the facial nerve segments contained within the temporal bone, while magnetic resonance imaging MRI is most appropriate for the evaluation of the intra-axial, cisternal, and extracranial segments. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
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Facial neuropathy with imaging enhancement of the facial nerve: a case report

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Facial neuropathy with imaging enhancement of the facial nerve: a case report

Metrics details. The human body has 12 pairs of cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most frequent pathologies that may involve cranial nerves and recognize their typical characteristics of imaging. Cranial nerve dysfunctions may be the result of pathological processes of the cranial nerve itself or be related to tumors, inflammation, infectious processes, or traumatic injuries of adjacent structures. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is considered the gold standard in the study of the cranial nerves.
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Imaging of cranial nerves: a pictorial overview

The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches see facial nerve branches mnemonic , it has taste and parasympathetic fibers that relay in a complex manner. The facial nerve is the only cranial nerve that may show normal post-contrast enhancement, although this applies only to the labyrinthine segment up to the stylomastoid foramen. Enhancement of the other segments of the facial nerve and other cranial nerves is considered pathologic.
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Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively.
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